Gilbert L. Wells
Patriotic wars of revolution, inspired by the American and French Revolutions, spread across Europe in the middle of the 19th century. Many refugees from these wars ended up in North America, including Giuseppe Garibaldi who applied for citizenship in the USA. At the outbreak of the American Civil War the Union Defence Committee of New York recruited four volunteer regiments, one of which was designated the Garibaldi Guard and recruited some of the immigrants. The author has identified the officers and NCOs in the Garibaldi Guard who originated from Portugal, together with some of the enlisted men.
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